Transportation and shipping were improved with the completion of the Saint-Quentin canal (linking the Oise and Somme rivers) in 1738, which was later extended to the Escaut River and the Low Countries, and the systematic building of a national road network. He was responsible for creating the first school for engineers in France at Mézières (1749–50); thanks to the trained engineers, France had the finest system of roads and bridges in Europe. Instead it became known that the King had quietly issued a new decree in December 1750, canceling the tax and relying again, entirely, on the "don gratuit", the voluntary donation by the church of 1,500,000 livres.  The King continued his grand construction projects, including the opera theater of the Palace of Versailles, completed for the celebration of the wedding of the Dauphin and Marie-Antoinette, and the new Place Louis XV (now Place de la Concorde) in Paris, whose centerpiece was an equestrian statue of the King, modeled after that of Louis XIV on the Place Vendôme. At the end of August 1755, Marie Therese, the Empress of Austria, discreetly wrote a letter to Louis XV, which was passed by the Austrian ambassador in Paris to Madame de Pomapadour for delivery to the King. The marriage of Francis of Lorraine and Maria Theresa took place in 1736, and the other exchanges took place in turn. In order to save on court expenses, he sent the youngest four daughters of the king to be educated at the Abbey of Fontevrault. In 1747, the Dauphin married Maria Josephina of Saxony, who gave birth to the next three kings of France: Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, and Charles X. Thus Louis Augustus was the King of France, Louis XV and his wife Marie Leszczynski grandson. The first-born daughter, called Madame Premiere, was married to the infant Philip of Spain, the second son of Philip of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. The French army greatly outnumbered the British and Prussians on the continent. The Parlement of Bordeaux went even further in its resistance to the royal government; in 1757 it brought accusations of corruption against the members of the government of the city of Bergerac, named by the Royal Council of the King. The powers of the Parlement of Paris alone were largely unchanged. Updates? Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift, an…  In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance (right of remonstrance) – the right to challenge the King's decisions, which had been removed by Louis XIV. The military forces of Frederick the Great in Prussia had been nearly exhausted in the long war against the combined forces of Austria and Russia; but Frederick was saved by the sudden death of the Tsarina Elizabeth in 1762, and her replacement by Peter III of Russia, a fervent admirer of the Prussian King. Instead of sending the largest part of the French fleet from its station off Copenhagen to Danzig, he ordered it to return to Brest and sent only a small squadron with two thousand soldiers, which after a fierce action was sunk by the Russians. However, the best French commander, Maurice de Saxe, had died two years after the War of the Austrian Succession, and the new French commanders, Charles, Prince of Soubise, the Duke D'Estrees and the Duke de Broglie detested each other, and were rarely willing to cooperate. In those cities rumors began to circulate of a mythical "Starvation Pact", a supposed plot by the government to deliberately starve and eliminate the poor. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Louis-XV, British Broadcasting Corporation - Biography of Louis XV, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour. The Parlement was strictly forbidden to discuss religious questions, preventing them from opposing the Unigenitus bull. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. When the news reached London, the British government demanded that the Spanish leave. When some red eruptions appeared on his skin, the doctors first diagnosed petite variole, or smallpox, which caused optimism, since the patient and doctors both believed he had already had the illness. In 1763, he became Minister of War, giving the role of minister of foreign affairs to his cousin, the Duc de Praslin. , According to Kenneth N. Jassie and Jeffrey Merrick, contemporary songs, poems, and public declarations typically portrayed a king as "master", unblemished "Christian", and benevolent provider ("baker"). 417 pp. Between April and September 1762, the Parlements of Rennes, Bordeaux, Paris and Metz joined in the condemnation, followed in 1763 by Aix, Toulouse, Pau, Dijon and Grenoble. The British had established a settlement in the islands, which were also claimed by Spain. In 1749, the King decided to purge the hospital of Jansenists and corruption, appointed a new "Supérieure" against the will of the administrators, who resigned, then appointed four temporary administrators, and asked the First President of the Parlement of Paris, René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou, to implement his decree for the reorganization of the hospital. The "Deluge" the King referred to was not a revolution, but the arrival of Halley's Comet, which was predicted to pass by the earth in 1757, and which was commonly blamed for having caused the flood described in the Bible, with predictions of a new deluge when it returned. His grandson and successor Louis XVI would inherit a kingdom in need of financial and political reform, which ultimately would lead to the French Revolution of 1789. , Two men had an enormous influence on the economic policies of the King. , In the first years of his governance, Fleury and his foreign minister Germain Louis Chauvelin sought to maintain the peace by maintaining the French alliance with Great Britain, despite their colonial rivalry in North America and the West Indies. Only later did the government and King himself take notice, after the church attacked the Encylopédie for questioning official church doctrines. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. The King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, Augustus II, was dying, and his official heir was Stanislaus I Leszczyński, the father of the Queen of France. The Duke's rigid and cold personality did not appeal to the young King, who turned to his old tutor for advice on how to run the affairs of state. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. In May 1716, he opened the Banque Générale Privée ("General Private Bank"), which soon became the Banque Royal. He never dared to decide for himself, but always, out of modesty, turned for advice to others, even when he saw more accurately than they did...Louis XIV had been too proud, but Louis XV was not proud enough. I would not be so calm if I saw some pretty woman of the court or the capital trying to conquer it. Married on 5 December 1777 to Charles de Boysseulh, vicomte de Boysseuilh, with whom she had three children. Both sides began to prepare for war. , Several of his contemporaries who worked closely with him tried to describe the personality of Louis XV. Married on 3 February 1771 to Antoinette-Françoise-Claudine de La Roche-Aymon. He launched a major shipbuilding program to construct eighty vessels and forty-five new frigates, which would allow the French fleet, combined with the allied Spanish fleet, to outnumber the Royal Navy. In 1752, after the killing of French envoy, Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, the French sent reinforcements and compelled Washington and his men to withdraw. In August, the king fell gravely ill in Metz. Under the government of Choiseul, the Parlements of several French provinces continued to swear obedience to the King, while refusing to obey his intendents or to accept his new taxes. Louis XV, king of France from 1715 to 1774, whose ineffectual rule contributed to the decline of royal authority that led to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. He invited her to Fontainebleau, and then asked her to live in the Palace of Versailles. Government of the Duke of Bourbon (1723–1726), Foreign relations – New alliances; the War of the Polish Succession, Queen, children, and the first mistresses, Achievements and dismissal of the government, Government of the Duke de Choiseul (1758–1770), Finances and the brief ministry of Silhouette, Commerce, agriculture and the "Starvation Pact" rumor, Preparations for a new war with Great Britain, Government of Maupeou and the Triumvirate (1770–1774), Legends: "After us the deluge" and the Parc-aux-Cerfs.  Ultimately, he wrote, Louis XV failed to overcome these fiscal problems, mainly because he was incapable of pulling together conflicting parties and interests in his entourage. The two men advocated removing as many restrictions as possible from the economy, to encourage greater production and trade. She was thirty-three years younger than the King. The King referred privately to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes ("braggart of crimes"). This new king, Louis XV, was born in 1710, five year before the death of his grandfather, the Sun King. , A few scholars have defended Louis, arguing that his highly negative reputation was based on propaganda meant to justify the French Revolution.  In March 1748, Louis proposed a conference in Aix-en-Chapelle to bring the war to an end.  His wife had become the King's mistress. The King was immediately attracted to Marie-Anne; however, she insisted that he expel her older sister from the Court before she would become his mistress. The view of many historians is that Louis was unequal to the high expectations of his subjects. In 1732 the coalition came into direct conflict with France over the succession to the Polish throne. Already Pauline de Mailly-Nesle, marquise de Vintimille, Louis’s mistress from 1739 to 1741, had sponsored the war party that brought France into the inconclusive War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) against Austria and Great Britain. When the news reached Paris, anxious crowds gathered in the streets. Because his parents and his only surviving brother had all died in 1712, he became king at the age of five on the death of Louis XIV (September 1, 1715). " Louis followed this advice and decided to govern without a prime minister. In 1785 (when he took the Holy Orders) he received a dispensation from the Pope because of his illegitimate origin. " This attitude did not please France's allies, who saw an opportunity to take parts of the Habsburg empire, or Louis's generals, who for a century had won glory fighting Austria. 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